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Systematic, Scoping, and Rapid Reviews

Data Extraction

Data extraction involves retrieving and recording pertinent study characteristics and findings of included studies. A plan for data extraction, along with a draft data extraction form, should be created as part of the protocol. This plan should include a description of how disagreements during data extraction process will be resolved.

Data items typically extracted include:

  • publication details
  • study design
  • participants
  • setting
  • intervention(s)
  • outcomes
  • findings

The list is likely to vary, as the data items extracted should be guided by the research question(s) and eligibility criteria.

As with screening, data extraction should be completed by two reviewers independently, and the data extraction form should be pilot tested before use.


There are a variety of software tools that can be used for data extraction, including Covidence and JBI SUMARI, but it can also be done simply using an Excel spreadsheet or a Word document.

Methods Guidance