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Chicago citation style

A guide to citing sources using the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition

Chicago style guides

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For more comprehensive information, see the Chicago Manual of Style:

Notes-Bibliography and Author-Date styles

Within Chicago Style, there are two different citation style options: Notes-Bibliography style and Author-Date style.

Notes-Bibliography style uses numbered footnotes in the text to direct the reader to a shortened citation known as a note. Notes can be at the bottom of the page (footnotes) or at the end of the paper (endnotes). Each note corresponds to a fuller citation on a Bibliography page at the end of the paper. Notes-Bibliography style is typically used in humanities disciplines. Section 14 of the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition, covers Notes-Bibliography citation.

Author-Date style uses parenthetical citations in the text to reference the source author's last name and the year of publication. Each parenthetical citation corresponds to an entry on a References page at the end of the paper. In this regard, Author-Date style is similar to APA style. Author-Date style is more commonly used in social sciences disciplines. Section 15 of the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition, covers Author-Date citation.

If it's not specified in your syllabus or assignment instructions, you may use either style. If you are not sure which one to use for your assignment, ask your instructor.